Nur 6052, Response To Discussion 1 Wk 4 -5 Discussion

Nur 6052, Response To Discussion 1 Wk 4 -5 Discussion: Searching Databases

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nur 6052, response to discussion wk 4 -5 Discussion: NURS 6052: ESSENTIALS OF EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE please respnd to Nora Schillo and Annalyn Rasul half a page each
RE: Discussion – Week 4
Week 4-Discussion-Initial post

Working in the health field, we are no strangers to clinical inquiry. We frequently find ourselves asking why we do things a certain way. We must identify keywords to get answers to our clinical inquiries, to conduct research that will turn up relevant information to provide supporting evidence (Laureate Education, 2018). To conduct evidence-based research, individuals form a clinical question that identifies the population of interest, intervention of interest, comparison of interest, expected outcome, and time to achieve the outcome. These questions are referred to as PICO(T) questions in evidenced-based practice (Melnyk and Fine0ut-Overholt, 2018).

PICO(T) Question

As a nurse and mother, I recognize the importance of mental and physical health well-being. One concern of mine is the possible correlation between excessive screen time and mental health issues among adolescents. Attempts to limit screen time with my children have been met with resistance. They verbalize that they do not believe screen time affects their overall well-being even though studies have indicated it does (Lemola et al., 2019). My concern and life experience have led to my clinical inquiry into how excessive screen time may affect adolescents. My PICO(T) question is -Are (P) individuals (I) who experience limited screen-time exposure (C) compared to individuals who experience excessive screen-time exposure (O) less likely to experience mental health issues (T) during the adolescent years?


There are numerous sources of information, and it is crucial to know how to do so effectively when conducting research. After forming my PICO(T) question, I initially identified keywords that were relevant to the PICO(T) question-screen time, adolescents, sleep disturbances, and depression. Using those keywords, I first searched the Thoreau database since it searches multiple databases. My search returned 157 articles. I quickly realized that if I wanted to increase the effectiveness of my research, I would have to conduct a more advanced search using Boolean terms (Library of Congress, n.d.). I searched screen-time AND adolescents AND sleep disturbances. This search returned 14 articles. Even though I did not include my keyword depression, almost all the articles still were relevant to my PICO(T) question.

The second database I searched was ScieneDirect. This database is relevant to the life sciences and medical field. I used the same keywords screen-time, adolescents, sleep disturbances, and depression in the initial search. The search produced 3,990 articles! I again realized there was no way I could use that many articles and again would have to narrow my search using Boolean terms. I expected to return fewer articles, however after adding the Boolean term AND I returned 5,261 results! I decided to again add more Boolean terms- excluding the keywords teens, teenagers, and children. I returned 196 articles! I thought, “Ok, that is a lot better,” but I still felt that to conduct useful research, I had to narrow it further. I added NOT insomnia and narrowed it to 77 articles. I then added NOT television since I was more interested in using cell phones and tablet use and narrowing it to 32 articles. I felt 32 articles would be sufficient to find relevant information. However, my curiosity got the best of me, and I also added NOT computers, narrowing my search to 24 articles.

By conducting my initial searches and then adding Boolean terms, I quickly realized that Boolean terms were an absolute necessity when researching with the massive amount of information readily available with today’s technology (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2018). In the future, I will start with Boolean terms when conducting research.

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Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). The Value of Clinical Inquiry [Video]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Library of Congress. (n.d.). Seatch/browse help-Boolean operators and nesting. Retrieved June 20, 2020 from

Lemola, S., Perkinson-Gloor, N., Brand, S., Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F., & Grob, A. (2015). Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. Journal of youth and adolescence, 44(2), 405–418.

Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2018). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

1 day agoAnnalyn Rasul
RE: Discussion – Week 4 Main Post

Clinical Inquiry and PICO(T)

Anxiety disorders are the biggest and most common mental issues worldwide. In the U.S., anxiety affects 40 million adults, age 18 and older (ADAA, n.d.). While depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, it is not the most common mental health issue. With increasing cases of anxiety disorders and the inappropriate use of Benzodiazepine, it is worth looking into alternative options or complementary medicines to manage anxiety disorders. Inappropriate prescribing of Benzodiazepine could lead to more serious side effects, injury, hospitalization, and even death. If Benzodiazepine’s potential risks outweigh the benefits, finding an alternative treatment with similar or superior efficacy and less addictive is beneficial and necessary. My clinical inquiry is: In adults with anxiety disorders (P), how effective is alternative medicine (I) compared to orthodox treatment (C) in reducing or managing anxiety symptoms (O)?

After creating my clinical inquiry, I translated my clinical research questions to the PICO(T) format. PICOT is a well-known approach for framing a leading research question (Rios, Ye, & Thabane, 2010). In this case scenario:

Patients (P) – Adults with anxiety disorders.
Intervention (I) – Alternative or complementary medicine for anxiety, such as herbal medicine, yoga, and Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT).
Comparison (C) – Orthodox treatment for anxiety. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is the standard gold treatment of anxiety.
Outcome (O) – The efficacy of alternative medicine in reducing or managing anxiety symptoms.
Time (T) – Time interval for measuring the outcome: From 4 weeks, 8weeks to 6 months.
Searching Databases and Results

A literature search is an essential step in performing proper authentic research. The process can be time-consuming and exhausting; however, several strategies can be used to search databases effectively. After formulating my clinical research question, I translated my research question to keywords to search for appropriate, relevant articles on my topic of interest. When searching for this topic, the databases used were PubMed, CINAHNL with full text, Medline with full text, and ProQuest nursing databases through Walden Library. I used keywords that are standard search terms such as anxiety, anxiety disorders, and alternative treatment, and use synonyms or similar terms from thesaurus such as phobia and complementary medicine. Another strategy I used is combining keywords or phrases using Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) and using filters to narrow down my choices such as year of publication, article types, peer-reviewed only, and full text only. The use of Boolean operators refined my search, resulting in more focused and productive results. Identifying and using the correct discipline for databases is also significant. Although I have used several databases for my research, I found most of my selected peer-reviewed articles from PubMed. PubMed is considered as the most extensive available resource since 1996.


The most critical key is formulating the research question. Formulating a well-focused question is a crucial step for facilitating good clinical research (Aslam & Emmanuel, 2010). A researcher must choose a well-focused question for research according to significance for patient interest and relevance of the topic to the researcher’s knowledge and expertise. To improve literature research, strategies such as combining keywords, using Boolean operators, using specific search terms, and testing several databases could benefit in a more efficient and effective search.

Keywords used: anxiety, anxiety disorders, phobia, fear, alternative treatment, complementary medicine


Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA, n.d.). Integrative Behavioral Health Retrieved from

Aslam, S., & Emmanuel, P. (2010). Formulating a researchable question: A critical step for facilitating good clinical research. Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 31:47–50.

Rios, L.P., Ye, C., & Thabane, L. (2010). Association between framing of the research question using the PICOT format and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials. BMC Med Res Methodol.10:11.

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