NR 501 Week 3 Assignment: Concept Analysis

NR 501 Week 3 Assignment: Concept Analysis- A Concept Analysis: Nursing Burnout

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NR501 week 3 Concept Analysis
At the end of Week 3 your concept analysis is due. This discussion provides an opportunity to
start this assignment. Select a nursing concept, supported by a nursing theory, and address the
following components included in a concept analysis:
 Definition of concept
 Identification of three attributes of the concept
 Description of one antecedent and one consequence of the concept
 Identification of two empirical referents
 Brief explanation of theoretical applications of the concept (How is the concept relevant
to a nursing theory?)
This information does not have to be comprehensive but provides a foundation to the upcoming
assignment. Be sure to include scholarly references.
Definition of concept
Concept in nursing is the foundations of nursing theory or practice that are obtained
through rigorous study or research. While concept analysis means exploring a nursing concept
into smaller divisions to investigate and obtain clarity of each nursing concept elements that will
provide understanding within nursing. The concept in nursing that I would like to analyze is
empathy. Empathy is pivotal in the nursing profession because it is part of nursing care as the
heart and soul of nursing. In addition, an empathetic nurse is relatively sensitive to the needs, feeling and concerns of the patient but also strong enough to help the patient achieve positive
health goals and outcomes (Morse et al., 2014).

Attributes of Empathy
Three (3) identified attributes of empathy are; one (1) positive nurse patient relationship,
two (2) understand another person’s feelings, and three (3) unbiased. According to Morse et al,
nurse patient relationship is well balanced by unbiased care that is obtained from the knowledge
about the patient condition or needs, thus building a therapeutic nurse-patient rapport. Another
critical attribute of empathy is understanding patient feelings and providing care that is patient
centered, using holistic approach, and making sure that patients are the highest priority that will
help meets patient health needs.

Antecedent of Empathy
One (1) antecedent of empathy is the goal to provide holistic patient care. The goal of
providing holistic care is paramount within the nursing profession. Moreover, to provide the best
quality of patient care is through holistic approach. Providing holistic care to patient is a
powerful action that will positively impact the patient lives as well as the clinician’s well-being
(Donnelly, 2014). For me, holistic care is about seeing a patient as a whole not just a patient but
a person, as well as touching person’s heart, soul, mind and body, and making an impact by
transforming their lives into the best version of themselves to which justifies the concept of

Consequence of Empathy
One (1) consequence of empathy is sharing too much private information between patient
and the caregiver or the nurse. Professional line also known as professional boundaries in
nursing which means that there is border line that helps guard the space between the vulnerable

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A concept analysis is an exercise designed to make the student/researcher familiar as possible with a concept (variable). A concept is usually one or two words that convey meaning, understanding or feelings between or among individuals within a same discipline. Some concepts relevant to nursing are health, nursing, managed care, coping and parenting. A concept analysis is the first step in communicating meanings, understandings and feelings.

A concept is usually a measurable variable in an hypothesis, assumption, or proposition. Consider the following statements: What is the effect of mutual help groups for widows and widowers? Do nurses with baccalaureate and associate degrees differ in the use of therapeutic touch in providing nursing care? What is the effect of AIDS education on teenagers understanding of AIDS and HIV? The underlined words are examples of concepts.

Activities and Directions

To begin the process, choose a concept you are interested in, a term you encounter with your work or one with which you would like to research. Look for the measurable quality in your topic of interest, problem or question.

1. Write down all of the words you can think of which relate to or express your concept.
2. Ask colleagues to share their understandings of your concept.
3. Look up the concept in a large unabridged dictionary and list the definitions you feel most closely describe your feelings or thoughts on the concept.
4. Search the literature for journal articles and books related to the concept to get sense of the beliefs and thoughts of others in the discipline regarding the concept.
5. Begin the analysis paper with a short introductory paragraph expressing what the concept is and why it is significant to you and nursing.
6. Develop your own definition of the concept which from dictionary definitions and literature support including criteria for measurement of your concept in the real world. Example: Table (concept)-a four-legged platform used to place objects on.
7. Formulate a list of characteristics or criteria that describe the concept in measurable terms so the concept can be measured in the empirical world. Use your definition, your clinical and theoretical experience, research and literature articles and books to make the list complete.

Example: Concept-Table
Characteristics-a. Four legs of the same length.
b. A flat or platform surface horizontal to the floor.
c. Used to place objects on.

8. Develop the Model Case. The model case is a brief situational description validating the concept including all of the characteristics you have listed which describe or make up the concept. The model case should be able to
reflect that If this is not an example of (concept), then nothing is.
9. Close with a summary.

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I. Introduction (10 points)
A. Includes the aims & purposes of the analysis    (0-3)_______
B. Justifies concept�s significance to nursing          (0-7)_______

II. Definition of Concept (20 points)
A. Describes derivation of definition from common usage, &
nursing use                                                       (0-6)_______
B. Describes & cites a variety of appropriate authoritative
sources from the literature regarding nature of concept  (0-6)_______
C. Student�s definition of concept reflects synthesis &
evaluation of definitions from appropriate sources  (0-8)_______

III. List of defining characteristics (25 points)
A. Each attribute is clearly stated as succinctly as possible (0-5)_______
B. Each attribute is logically an essential element of the
concept as defined                                                      (0-5)_______
C. Each attribute is stated in as measurable a form as the
abstractness of the concept allows                               (0-5)_______
D. The listed attributes comprise all essential attributes of the
concept as defined                                                     (0-10)______

IV. The Model Case (25 points)
A. Is a logical example of the concept                              (0-5)_______
B. Includes all listed attributes of the concept                  (0-10)______
C. Includes no attributes of other concepts                       (0-5)_______
D. Is concisely stated                                                       (0-5)_______

V. Reference List (10 points)
A. Contains a variety of resources             (0-2)_______
B. Resources are authoritative, �classic� resources are evident  (0-3)_______
C. Nursing resources are explored                                 (0-3)_______
D. Resources are sufficient in number to justify analysis   (0-2)_______

VI. Layout and Presentation of Paper (10 points)
A. Precise APA format              (0-5)_______
B. Grammar, spelling & typing at professional scholarly level   (0-5)_______

TOTAL       ________


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NURS 700: Advanced Nursing Science: Concept Analysis Assignment

For your Concept Analysis assignment, you need to find specific types of scholarly sources. These can include books or peer-reviewed articles from scholarly journals. Remember, you can use a reference book such as an encyclopedia, thesaurus or dictionary, but you are limited to only one of each.

Please see the D2L page for your class for assignment instructions and the Walker and Avant book chapter. It is very important that you read both carefully.

Selection of appropriate search terms is very appropriate. We recommend connecting the term for your concept with any of these search terms using the Boolean operator AND. Also, truncate words using the * symbol to search for variant word endings. Here are some helpful search strategies to try:

  • compassion AND “concept analysis”
  • compassion AND philosoph*
  • compassion AND theor*
  • compassion AND defin*
  • compassion AND concept*
  • compassion AND (religious OR religion* OR theolog*)
  • compassion AND anthropolog*
  • compassion AND theor* AND psycholog*
  • etc.

It is often useful to use the advanced search screens in the article databases. Please also see the videos below for more search tips.

For a complete list of article databases available through the library, click on Search for Articles – Library Databases on the homepage of the library website ( or go to the A-Z Listing of Guides.

Nursing Burnout: A Concept Analysis

Nurses have a load they are carrying on their shoulders when caring for patients in any environment. “Nursing staff have certain professional expectations and inclinations that make them susceptible to suffering burnout” (Manzano-Garcia & Ayala, 2017). With nurses being the forefront of healthcare, burnout is so high within this profession. A concept analysis is an approved language used to explain certain defining attributes. Concept analysis can be used in the nursing profession to test theories and develop new theories in different concepts and aspects seen throughout different practices. Burnout needs to be looked at closer in the field of nursing. Nurses become exhausted emotionally, physically, and mentally with long work hours, inability to take proper breaks, short staffing, and no appreciation which causes nurses to leave the profession. The importance of examining nurse burnout in a concept analysis cannot be overstated. This paper will define and explain what nurse burnout is while providing literature reviews, one antecedent with a one consequence, two empirical referents on how to measure burnout, applying the application of theory using the conservation of resources theory, then closing with a conclusion.

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Definition and explanation of nursing concept

The definition of burnout from the Merriam Webster dictionary says, “an exhaustion of physical or emotional strength or motivation usually as a result of prolonged stress or frustration” (Burnout, n.d.). Burnout is nothing new and is continuing to grow in the nursing profession. Burnout can lead to many issues with nurses and nurse practitioners alike. Among many examples of burnout, Raferty & Poole (2015) found compassion fatigue, physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion, stress, decrease in personal goals, poor physical and mental health, self-conscious about job performance, broken relationships, decrease in productivity, increased call-ins are among the mix. Burnout is believed to be more common in healthcare because of the high stress levels involved with their job, performance, and work environment (p. 653). Nurses have the responsibility of many different types of patients. They give so much of themselves, physically, emotionally, and mentally, to properly care for patients, which leads to nurse burnout. There are many names for nursing burnout, but all lead to the same problem where nurses become overwhelmed with the duties needed to complete their shift. Burnout is not limited to just nurses; it can affect anyone working in a high-stress work environment. Burnout happens when personal achievements are not completed, and job discomfort increases causing a decline in effort and overall health. The affects happen gradually over time. The very things that brought one to nursing, such as passion and enthusiasm, are taken over by thoughts of frustration and feeling unappreciated which they never had before deciding to become a nurse.

Literature Review

All the literature I read for nurse burnout showed how large a problem, it is and how and why it needs be prevented. Burnout is individualized causing long effects on nurses, environments and patient safety and outcomes. Call-offs leave nurses short staffed leading to more errors and less time for each patient leading to burnout. The literature showed that physical, mental and emotional fatigue, stressful work environment, anticipated failures and job discomfort are directly related to burnout (Filgueira Martins Rodrigues, Pereira Santos & Sousa, 2017). Nurses working short staffed, long hours and mandated overtime give their time and energy to patient care which leads to burnout over a period of time.

Job related stress controls how one sees themselves and control their temper and attitude. With burnout being a result of continued high stress levels at work, the literature also supports this type of levels can lead to decrease in good health and increase the development of a disease (Savagioni et al., 2017). Increased levels of stress and inability to reach personal goals can lead to different consequences such as negativity among and towards workers, attitudes, and undesirable patient satisfaction scores.

Literature states burnout can happen to anyone, anywhere and anytime while working in a stressful environment. “Growing evidence has accumulated in the past decades that burnout is a widespread phenomenon among health professionals with adverse consequences on individual health, organizational functioning, quality of care, and patient outcome” (Heeb and Haberey-Knuessi, 2014, p 1).

Empirical referents can be different types of questionnaires. Nurses and nurse practitioners could be assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). The survey includes personal and work-related characteristics. According to Heeb and Haberey-Knuessi (2014), a 22-item questionnaire which reflects the different levels of emotional fatigue, inability to focus on future, and decrease in completion of personal goals (p. 2).

Chronic stress at work can cause many problems to the physical and mental health of nurses such as high cholesterol, diabetes, different heart diseases, pain with changes in experiences, chronic fatigue, migraines, stomach issues, breathing problems, and injuries to any part of body (Savagioni et al., 2017). Education and interventions, beginning sooner than later, will lead to better outlooks towards the personal and work environments where the high levels of burnout occur (Savagioni et al., 2017).

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Defining Attributes

An attribute identifies parts of a concept. Research has shown a high-stress environment, working long hours, mental, physical and emotional fatigue, stress, and decreases in personal goal completion are some of the most important attributes to nurse burnout. Nursing requires the delivery of humane, empathetic, culturally sensitive, proficient and moral care, in working environments with limited resources and increasing responsibilities such as the imbalance between providing high quality care and coping with stressful working environments can lead to burnout (Khamisa, Oldenburg, Peltzer & Ilic, 2015, p. 653). Things adding to the stressful work environment include no leadership, no guidance, decrease meshing of peers and patients, ever-changing demands and mandatory overtime go with many areas of burnout (Khamisa, Oldenburg, Peltzer & Ilic, 2015, p. 653).

Antecedent and Consequence

Antecedents looks at data that can cause a concept. The antecedents physical and mental fatigue caused by high acuity patient loads and unrealistic expectations of staff. Physical emotional, and mental fatigue cause nurses to be pushed past their limits when caring for patients. Physical, emotional and mental fatigue cause reactions that lead to burnout in this profession.

A consequence of nurse burnout is where the antecedents result in overworked staff who have to bear heavy workloads and cannot provide proper care to the patients that lead to poor patient outcomes. Staffing issues reports as one of the highest reasons for nurses because of an inability to meet the demands of their job due to poor staff management, which may negatively affect morale and lack of resources which may negatively affect patient care (Khamisa, Oldenburg, Peltzer & Ilic, 2015, p. 660).

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Empirical Referents

One empirical referent is a subscale that assesses various aspects of burnout, specifically emotional fatigue, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment (Gómez-Urquiza, et al , 2017, p. e3). Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) is another empirical referent to measure levels of emotional exhaustion, fatigue, depersonalization, and decrease in personal accomplishment (Heeb and Haberey-Knuessi, 2014, p. 2). Nurses and nurse practitioners can be measured using both empirical referents to determine nurse burnout.

Construct Cases

Situations made up or true events showing the use or absence of nursing burnout. An imaginary picture showing how the attributes define nurse burnout.

Model Case

A nurse named Corrine works in a hospital full-time on a cardiac step-down unit while attending school to earn her BSN. She is a divorcee with one daughter. Corrine recently lost her mother and father, who was her rock. She has met someone who she intends to marry in the next year. Corrine works an extra day a week to have extra money to keep up with the bills. She has worked overtime for 6 months now. Every shift she has to stay over to finish charting for the day. She has volunteered to be a super user for nursing skills and computer skills checkoffs. Corrine has had lots of gastrointestinal problems. Lately, Corrine has become easily frustrated and angry. Her patients have made complaints about speaking rude to them and being rough while moving them. Corrine also is the president of the PTO at her daughter’s school.

The model case shows many attributes of nurse burnout. Corrine work and personal life are both very stressful. She works forty hours a week in a busy medical/surgical unit, works more and longer hours, which adds to fatigue and are mentally, physically, and emotionally draining. Corrine works and lives in a high stress place. Like any mother and nurse, she puts her family before herself, ignoring all her own health problems.

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Borderline Case

Melissa is a nurse on a busy SICU unit. She is married with two teenage daughters. Melissa has decided to return to school to receive her Nurse Practitioner degree.  She picks up extra shifts for extra money for bills and pay for her classes while taking no time off for herself. Melissa has become frustrated and angry, causing her patients to complain to the nurse manager with her being rude, disrespectful and forgetful. Melissa would like to have more time to herself, but can’t due to school and extra, long hours at work.

The borderline case shows that Melissa shows many attributes of burnout because of the long, extra hours she works at her stressful position at the hospital. She needs some time off for herself.

Contrary Case

Jackie is medical/ surgical nurse who works three 12-hour shifts per week. She treats her patients with respect, dignity, and made to feel like they are her family members. She has one son who plays baseball. Jackie has regular yearly check-ups with her family physician, gynecological physician, eye doctor, and dentist. She knows she needs to lose a few pounds but eats a healthy diet. Jackie is active with her son’s baseball team, walks regularly, and enjoys spending time with her family and friends. This case shows nurse burnout is not involved in Jackie’s life. She has an even balanced life between work and home life.

Theoretical Application of Concept

The purpose of a concept analysis is to clear up inconclusive concepts in a theory. In this paper, I chose the conservation of resources theory. It focuses on four aspects such as objects, conditions, personal characteristics, and energy (Prapanjaroensin, Patrician, & Vance, 2017). This theory can be used to explain how burnout exists in the nursing profession. According to Prapanjaroensin, Patrician, & Vance (2017), nurse burnout affects work performances, increase tiredness, and decreases the quality of patient care. The conservation of resources theory can decrease nurse burnout while increasing research to look at the relationship between nurse burnout and the care they provide to their patients (Prapanjaroensin, Patrician, & Vance, 2017). Nurses need to be physically and mentally stable in order to show patients compassion, respect and dignity. Nurses need to take care of themselves, physically and mentally, in order to provide proper care to patients’ health.


The concept chosen for this concept analysis paper was burnout. Burnout is caused by many different things in the nursing profession: short staffing, high acuity patient load, long work hours, emotionally, physically, and mentally draining, physical and mental fatigue, and no teamwork while working. Poor health conditions of nurses increase when placed under stress and poor working conditions. Knowing the concepts seen in advanced practice nurse settings, such as a Family Nurse Practitioner, can help in understanding how the concept goes together in a nursing theory. Theories can help nurse practitioners provide better patient care by taking care of themselves. Nurses and nurse practitioners focusing on their self-care will provide better patient care and outcomes. The conservation theory of burnout affects over-all health by decreasing the abilities to cope which in turn cause physical, mental and emotional fatigue, lowering the ability to be social (Khamisa, Oldenburg, Peltzer, & Ilic, 2015).

Through my research on burnout for my concept analysis paper, I have learned a little more about what it means to become burnout in nursing. I can see there are times I fall into the burnout stage at work myself. I become physically, mentally, and emotionally drained most of the time at work. Now, I have learned ways to recognize the signs and symptoms of burnout. I have also learned ways to address the signs and symptoms of burnout with self-care techniques. I believe this paper will help me grow as a nurse into a nurse practitioner who can help teach self-care theory to the patients I see in my practice.


  • Burnout. (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2019, from
  • Filgueira Martins Rodrigues, C. C., Pereira Santos, V. E., & Sousa, P. (2017). Patient safety and nursing: interface with stress and Burnout Syndrome. Revista Brasileira De Enfermagem, 70(5), 1083-1088. doi:10.1590/0034-7167-2016-0194
  • Gómez-Urquiza, J. L., De la Fuente-Solana, E. I., & Albendín-García, L., Vargas-Pecino, C., Ortega-Campos, E.M., & Canadas de la Fuente, G.A.  (2017). Prevalence of burnout syndrome in emergency nurses: A meta-analysis. Critical Care Nurse, 37(5), e1-e9. doi:10.4037/ccn2017508
  • Heeb, J. & and Haberey-Knuessi, V. (2014). Health professionals facing burnout: What do we know about nursing managers? Hindawi Nursing Research and Practice, 2014 (681814), 1-7.
  • Khamisa, N., Oldenburg, B., Peltzer, K., & Ilic, D. (2015). Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(1), 652-666.
  • Manzano-García, G., & Ayala, J. (2017). Insufficiently studied factors related to burnout in nursing: Results from an e-Delphi study. Plos One, 12(4), e0175352. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175352
  • Prapanjaroensin,A., Patrician, P.A. &Vance, D. E. (2017). Conservation of resources theory in nurse burnout and patient safety. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 73(11), 2558-2565
  • Raferty, C. & Poole, L. (2015). Nurse practitioners: Do we care? The Journal of Nurse Practitioners, 11(6), 653.
  • Salvagioni, D. J., Melanda, F. N., Mesas, A. E., González, A. D., Gabani, F. L., & Andrade, S. d. (2017). Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies. Plos ONE, 12(10), 1-29. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0185781

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