Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

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Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

Kacmarek et al.: Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, 11th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

1. Approximately what percent of hospitalized patients develop a health care–associated infection?

a. 1%
b. 4%
c. 10%
d. 25%

 

 

ANS: B

Patients are at risk for developing infections during their hospital stay. A recent study estimated that 4% of hospitalized patients in the United States develop a health care–associated infection.

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

DIF: Recall REF: p. 60 OBJ: 1

 

2. Which of the following is considered the primary source of infection in the health care setting?

a. Medical equipment
b. Humans
c. Food and water
d. Carpet

 

 

ANS: B

Humans (patients, personnel, or visitors) are the primary sources for infectious agents in the health care setting.

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

DIF: Recall REF: p. 60 OBJ: 1

 

3. How do endotracheal tubes increase the risk of infection?

a. By increasing bleeding risks
b. Providing surfaces for biofilms to develop
c. By reducing neutrophil effectiveness
d. By increasing mucociliary escalator clearance

 

 

ANS: B

Endotracheal tubes allow pathogens to increase the risk of infection by impeding local host defenses and providing biofilms that may facilitate adherence of pathogens.

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

DIF: Application REF: p. 60 OBJ: 5

 

4. Which of the following factors increase the risk of surgical patients for developing postoperative pneumonia?

1. Obesity

2. Prolonged intubation

3. History of smoking

4. Elderly

a. 1 and 3 only
b. 2 and 4 only
c. 2, 3, and 4 only
d. 1, 2, 3, and 4

 

 

ANS: D

Patients at highest risk include elderly persons, the severely obese, those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or a history of smoking, and those having an artificial airway in place for long periods. Strong cough mechanism actually helps to prevent atelectasis and pneumonia.

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

DIF: Recall REF: p. 60 OBJ: 4

 

5. What is the most common route of pathogen transmission in the hospital setting?

a. Indirect contact
b. Droplet transmission
c. Airborne transmission
d. Surgical transmission

 

 

ANS: A

Indirect contact transmission is the most frequent mode of transmission in the health care environment.

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

DIF: Recall REF: p. 61 OBJ: 3

 

6. Which of the following is an example of indirect contact transmission involving fomites?

a. Use of a sterile needle on a pneumonia patient
b. Use of a dirty laryngoscope blade on another patient
c. Drinking tap water
d. Inhaling tuberculosis pathogens in the emergency department

 

 

ANS: B

Instruments that have been inadequately cleaned between patients before disinfection or sterilization are an example of indirect contact transmission involving fomites.

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

DIF: Application REF: p. 62 OBJ: 3

 

7. If you are caring for a patient who is suspected of having SARS, at what distance from the patient is it recommended to wear an effective filtration mask?

a. 6 ft
b. 10 ft
c. 12 ft
d. 15 ft

 

 

ANS: A

Current HICPAC guidelines state it may be prudent to don a mask when within 6 ft of the patient or upon entry into the room of a patient who is on droplet isolation.

Discussion Chapter 04 – Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

DIF: Application REF: p. 62 OBJ: 9

 

8. Which of the following diseases are transmitted primarily by airborne transmission?

1. Tuberculosis

2. Measles

3. Smallpox

4. Viral hemorrhagic fever

a. 1, 2, and 3 only
b. 1 and 4 only
c. 2, 3, and 4 only
d. 1, 2, 3, and 4

 

 

ANS: A

The pathogens transmitted by the airborne route include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox), and rubeola virus (measles). Airborne transmission of variola (smallpox) has been documented and airborne transmission of SARS, monkeypox, and the viral hemorrhagic fever virus has been reported, although not proved conclusively.

 

DIF: Recall REF: p. 62 OBJ: 3

 

9. What techniques are used by most hospitals to reduce host susceptibility to infection?

a. Immunization
b. Blood testing
c. Surveillance
d. Having patients wear N95 mask

 

 

ANS: D

Hospital efforts to decrease host susceptibility focus mainly on employee immunization and chemoprophylaxis.

 

DIF: Recall REF: p. 64 OBJ: 6

 

10. What vaccination does OSHA require hospital employers to provide?

a. Tuberculosis
b. Smallpox
c. Hepatitis B
d. Streptococcus pneumoniae

 

 

ANS: C

OSHA mandates that employers offer hepatitis B vaccination.

 

DIF: Recall REF: p. 62 OBJ: 6

 

11. What is the first step in equipment processing for reuse on another patient?

a. Drying the equipment
b. Cleaning the equipment
c. Disinfecting the equipment
d. Sterilizing the equipment

 

 

ANS: B

Cleaning is the first step in all equipment processing.

 

DIF: Recall REF: p. 63 OBJ: 8

 

12. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the use of soaps to clean equipment?

a. Soaps act by lowering the surface tension.
b. Soaps work poorly in hard water.
c. Soaps have good bactericidal activity.
d. Soaps can help remove organic material.

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